Cannabis is a plant containing a mixture of chemical substances of unique composition, and therefore it has vast array of applications. Hemp fiber and shives are used in the paper, construction and textile industries. Hemp seeds and products have high nutritional value for humans. They contain significant amounts of essential amino acids and represent a source of ω-3 and ω-6 essential fatty acids. In addition, cannabis flowers contain a broad spectrum of secondary metabolites (phytocannabinoids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids), which possess beneficial properties against various disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge of cannabis chemistry, as well as its utilization for various purposes. Special attention is focused on the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids.
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